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Full text of "O'Hare Line park-ride surveys : phase II"

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Technical Report PMR-x94023 

O'HARE 

LINE 

PARK & RIDE 

SURVEYS: 

PHASE II 









fa 



Market Research Department 

Planning Division 

April, 1994 



fr352.17 (04/94) 



3 5556 025 456 559 
PMR-X94023 



O'HARE LINE PARK & RIDE SURVEYS 
PHASE II 



Prepared by 
Survey Research Section 



Market Research Department 
Planning Division 



Chicago Transit Authority 



April, 1994 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 



http://www.archive.org/details/oharelineparkriOOchic 



CONTENTS 

Page 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY i 

BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1 

Cumberland Park & Ride Garage 1 

River Road Park & Ride Lot 2 

Recent Passenger Traffic and Park-Ride Usage 2 

Survey Design and Methods 5 

SURVEY RESULTS 7 

Trip Origins and Destinations 7 

Trip Purpose 7 

Reasons for Choosing Park & Ride 7 

Auto Occupancy 13 

Present Parking Patterns 13 

--Driving Time 13 

-Arrival Time 13 

-Parking Frequency 13 

-Parking Duration 13 

-Parking Level Choice 17 

-Parking Facility Choice 17 

Prior Travel and Parking History 17 

-Length of Park-n-Ride Usage 17 

-Prior Travei Mode (New Users) 17 

-Alternate Travel Modes (Other Users) 19 

-Daily Parking Cost at Final Destination 19 

-Prior CTA Usage 19 



--Alternate Travel Mode (No Auto Available) 19 

Satisfaction With Rail Service 22 

Awareness of Park & Ride Options 22 

Demographics Characteristics 24 

RESPONSE TO CARPOOL PARKING PREFERENCE 27 

Awareness of Cumberland Preferential Parking 27 

Price Sensitivity to Preferential Parking 28 

Key Characteristics of Potential Carpoolers 28 

Key Characteristics of Present Carpoolers 32 

CONCLUSIONS: PARK & RIDE USAGE INCREASES 33 

Contrast Between March and November, 1993 Surveys 33 

Effectiveness of Fall, 1993 Cumberland Promotion 34 

-Net Usage Increase Attributable to Marketing 34 

--Changes in User Profiles 35 

APPENDIX A. Cumberland Parking Facility User Survey 36 

APPENDIX B. River Road Parking Facility User Survey 38 



DGS/mlh 



DGS-31 
6/1/94 



LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES 



Figures 



Page 



1. Cumberland Station: Average Weekly Entering Traffic 3 

2. River Road Station: Average Weekly Entering Traffic 4 

3. Cumberland Park & Ride: Average Weekday Usage 6 

4. Cumberland Parkers: Home Zip Codes 10 

5. Cumberland Parkers: Home Zip Codes— Detail 10 

6. River Road Parkers: Home Zip Codes 11 

7. River Road Parkers: Home Zip Codes— Detail 11 

Tables 

1 . Starting Municipality 8 

2. Ending Location 9 

3. Trip Origin 9 

4. Trip Purpose 12 

5. Reasons for Using Park & Ride 12 

6. Number of People in Car 14 

7. Minutes Driving to Park & Ride 14 

8. Time of Arrival at Park & Ride 15 

9. Days Using Park & Ride Last Week 15 

10. Number of Hours Parked Today 16 

1 1 . How Long Parking at Park & Ride 16 

12. How Was Trip Made Before Using Park & Ride: New User 18 

13. Alternate Travel Modes for This Trip 20 

14. Daily Parking Cost at Final Destination 20 

15. How Long Using CTA 21 

16. How Would Trip Be Made if No Vehicle Available 21 

17. How Did You First Learn About Park & Ride 23 

18. How Did You First Learn About Park & Ride: Summary 23 

19. Age of Respondents 25 

20. Race of Respondents 25 

21 . Household Size 25 

22. Vehicles Available in Household 26 

23. Household Income 26 

24. How Likely to Carpool: $0.25 Discount 29 

25. How Likely to Carpool: $0.50 Discount 29 

26. How Likely to Carpool: $0.75 Discount 30 

27. How Likely to Carpool: $1.00 Discount 30 



DGS-39 
6/1/94 



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 



In September and October, 1993, a promotional campaign was conducted at the 
Cumberland parking facility along CTA's Blue Line, which provides rail rapid transit 
service from the Chicago Central Business District (CBD) to O'Hare Airport. The purpose 
of the promotion was to attract new riders by increasing the number of park & riders using 
the facility. 

Two surveys of park & ride users, at both the Cumberland garage and the River 
Road Station parking lot, were conducted in November, 1993. Their purpose was to 
document whether increased Cumberland park & ride usage had, in fact, occurred, and 
to compare the characteristics of surveyed parking facility users with the characteristics 
of users revealed in a similar March, 1 993 survey at both locations. A secondary purpose 
of these surveys was to explore the potential of reduced rates for high occupancy 
vehicles (HOVs)— or carpools— to increase this type of travel behavior. 



Results of Promotional Campaign 

• 75% of new park & ride customers were new to CTA, having previously made 
their trip by auto (29%), new trip (37%), or used Metra (9%). 

• While most park & ride users first learned about this option by driving by (37- 
45%) or riding by on the train (11-19%), various elements of the primarily 
visual promotional campaign were mentioned as "first knowledge" by 6% of 
Cumberland users and 4% of River Road users. 

• By comparing the March and November surveys, it was learned that the 
proportion using park & ride less than six months increased from 23% to 
39%, another clear indication of increased attraction of new users. 

t After accounting for the effect of the increased congestion on the Kennedy 
Expressway, caused by its reconstruction over the period of the promotion, 
a net increase in usage of around 8% at Cumberland can be directly 
attributable to the promotion. 

t This growth rate exceeded the change in overall Blue Line station boardings 
in the same time period, and was made up primarily of new riders (only 10% 
former bus access). 



• Those users with more proclivity to try carpooling at these reduced rates also 
tended to be more recent users of the parking lot, as well as of CTA, and to 
be primarily commuters driving all the way to the Chicago downtown. 



Other Survey Highlights 

• The two primary reasons for choosing park & ride were "expensive parking 
at destination" and "faster than driving all the way". 

• Work was the primary trip purpose (68%), followed by school (13%), and 
work-related travel (11%). 

• 89% of all respondents drove alone, while 9% were in two-occupant vehicles, 
and 2% in vehicles with 3 or more persons. 

• Present parking patterns included an average driving time of 16.5 minutes, 
31-36% of drivers arriving between 7:00 and 8:00 A.M., a 10-hour parking 
duration as most frequent, and 63% of parkers parked 4-5 weekdays of the 
previous week. 

§ Prior travel and parking history included 32% of park & ride users having 
parked at either location less than three months, 56% of those parking more 
than three months previously driving all the way, and 27% of respondents 
using CTA for less than six months. 

• Satisfaction with rail service was high— 59% rated service as "very 
satisfactory" and 31% as "satisfactory". 



Actions Needed 

• Improve signage for preferential carpool spaces. 18% of Cumberland users 
and 32% of Cumberland carpoolers were not aware of the preferential 
spaces. 

• If a discount of $1 .00 for carpool parking were to be offered at Cumberland 
(leaving the remaining price at $.75 per 12 hours), 25% of garage users 
stated that they "definitely will carpool". A market test of this potential 
diversion of single-driver autos is worth exploring. 



BACKGROUND INFORMATION 



Parking lots for CTA rapid transit passengers (Park & Ride) are located at the 
Cumberland and River Road stations on the Blue Line (O'Hare branch). The Blue Line 
operates in the median of the Kennedy Expressway, the main northwest expressway in 
Chicago. Rush hour service is very frequent, with trains arriving every three to five 
minutes. River Road and Cumberland are the second and third stations inbound stations, 
so there are still seats available for passengers in the morning rush. Five Blue Line 
stations are in the middle of the Central Business District. The Blue Line has easy 
transfers to other rapid transit lines. 

Park & Ride facilities allow individuals to drive to the station, park their car, and 
ride rapid transit to their final destination. Park & Ride facilities allow a much larger 
population to use rapid transit than is usually served by available feeder buses. All CTA 
Park & Ride facilities are operated on a first come, first served basis with no reserved 
parking. Parking for individuals with disabilities is provided at each facility nearest the 
station entrance. 

Metra, the commuter rail system, provides service in the immediate Northwest 
Corridor area, with three commuter lines. However, commuter service is much less 
frequent than rapid transit service. Commuter rail stations usually offer inexpensive 
parking, with reserved parking available on a monthly basis. The commuter rail terminal 
is at the western end of the Central Business District. 

The Kennedy Expressway is currently undergoing a reconstruction that will 
continue through 1994. Severe traffic delays have been experienced throughout the 
reconstruction. 



Cumberland Park & Ride Garage 

Cumberland Park & Ride has 1 ,500 parking spaces on four levels. First built as 
a two-level facility in 1983, the garage was enlarged in 1992, coinciding with the start of 
the 3-year Kennedy reconstruction. The facility is well-lit and there are elevators for 
patrons. Drivers are required to get a time- and date-stamped ticket when entering and 
then pay an attendant when exiting. Parking rates are $1.75 for up to 12 hours. After 
12 hours prohibitively high rates are imposed to discourage airport parking. This facility 
is located next to the expressway and there is a complete cross-street interchange at 
Cumberland. 



Cumberland Park & Ride is managed by a private firm for CTA. In exchange for 
managing and maintaining the facility, the private firm collects all parking revenues and 
guarantees CTA a certain lump sum payment each month and a percentage of revenues 
past a certain threshold. 

The Cumberland Rapid Transit station and parking complex is served by two CTA 
and three Pace bus routes. The station complex has direct pedestrian connections to a 
very large mixed-use office and residential development and nearby hotels. 



River Road Park & Ride Lot 

River Road Park & Ride is a flat parking lot with 797 spaces. Drivers enter the 
well-lit facility and park in a numbered space. Just before entering the station, the driver 
must deposit $1.50 in coin into the appropriately numbered slot in unattended slot boxes, 
where the parking fee is securely held until collected later in the day. There is an 18-hour 
daily limit on parking. This facility is located at a complete interchange along the Kennedy 
Expressway branch that goes to O'Hare Airport. 

River Road Park & Ride facility is managed for CTA by the Village of Rosemont. 
Rosemont police collect parking fees from the slot boxes and enforce parking regulations, 
ticketing vehicles that have not paid the parking fee. Rosemont personnel also maintain 
the facility. The Village of Rosemont deducts expenses incurred from gross revenues 
collected and gives 50% of the remaining revenue to CTA. 

The River Road Rapid Transit Station complex is a significant hub for eight Pace 
suburban buses. Limited pedestrian access is available to the numerous hotels and 
convention facilities located in the immediate vicinity. 



Recent Passenger Traffic and Park & Ride Usage 

Entering passenger traffic at Cumberland and River Road stations is presented 
in Figures 1 and 2. Generally, 1992 traffic was down considerably from 1991 at both 
stations. Traffic in 1993 improved over 1992, but 1993 traffic did not reach 1991 levels. 
Cumberland station traffic was stable in Periods 11 and 12 of 1993, and fell in Periods 
1 and 2 in 1994, due to severe winter weather. 



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Cumberland parking garage usage is presented in Figure 3. 1993 usage was 
significantly higher than 1992 usage, though the expanded garage opened in May 1992. 
Located directly on the Kennedy Expressway, usage of the Cumberland parking facility 
was impacted by Kennedy Expressway reconstruction. This work was underway from 
March 1 992 to November 1 992, and from March 1 993 to October 1 993. As can be seen 
in Figure 3, average daily usage was over 1 ,000 vehicles during Kennedy reconstruction, 
dropping to about 900 vehicles when reconstruction stopped for the winter. 1993 
Cumberland Park & Ride usage increased over 1992 levels by 6.1% in November and 
7.8% in December. 

Usage of preferred HOV spaces on the first level at Cumberland has been 
monitored from September 15, 1993 through February 28, 1994. Usage has held fairly 
steady. Weekday average usage was: Sep 1993 -- 78 vehicles, Oct 1993 -- 86 vehicles, 
Nov 1993 -- 79 vehicles, Dec 1993 -- 69 vehicles, Jan 1994 -- 68, and Feb 1994 -- 78. 

Daily usage counts are not available for the River Road parking lot. However, 
occasional observations starting in March, 1992 show usage of the two Park & Ride 
facilities is inter-connected. River Road filled earlier with the Cumberland promotion, but 
does not always fill during summer months or bad winter weather. About 30-42 
carpoolers regularly used the lot. 



Survey Design and Methods 

Straightforward questions on the two surveys (shown in Appendices A & B) 
identified such travel features as trip origin, destination, purpose, number in vehicle, time 
of arrival, driving time to station, awareness of HOV parking, alternatives used or 
considered, present parking patterns, and the pattern of recent transit use, as well as 
CTA's usual set of survey demographics. 

Answers to these questions reveal the profile of the park & rider, the carpool-park 
& rider, and the geographic draw — the market shed — of these two stations. In 
particular, by comparing results of the March and November surveys, it is possible to 
better understand the travel and attitudinal characteristics of those users newly attracted 
to park & ride by the planned marketing campaign. 

One survey was distributed to each vehicle that entered the Cumberland garage 
between 5:00 A.M. and 10:00 P.M on the survey day. Cashiers at the exit held the 
completed surveys for CTA to pick up. Free parking was offered that day as an incentive 
to complete the survey. At River Road, surveys were distributed to every vehicle entering 
between 3:45 A.M. and 9:00 P.M., with collection until 1 :00 A.M. the following day. Also, 



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River Road's usual pay-as-you-enter system was reversed for one day, and explained 
(both in advance and on the survey date) with large posters. The slot boxes were 
covered. Entering drivers received a survey from CTA staff, and exiting drivers turned 
in the survey, or paid the normal parking fee (to a Rosemont Police representative). 



SURVEY RESULTS 

At Cumberland Park & Ride, 920 of 1,070, or 86%, of surveys distributed were 
completed and returned. At River Road Park & Ride, 767 of 825, or 93%, of surveys 
distributed were completed and returned. 



Trip Origins and Destinations 

Starting municipalities included 93 suburbs plus Chicago. The top 26 are detailed 
in Table I. Overall, 74% of all trips started in the northwest suburbs or northwest Chicago. 
Ending location for 77.6% of all trips was the Chicago Central Business District (CBD). 
Other destinations included the University of Illinois, Chicago (UIC) -- 5.6%, O'Hare -- 
5.1%, Chicago Other -- 3.9%, and Rosemont -- 3.9%. See Table 2 for more details. 

Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7 depict the wide geographic distribution of trip origins for 
each station. The market area of the Park & Ride facilities is surprisingly large. The area 
surrounding each station that includes about 2/3 of home zip codes is about six miles 
across. 



Trip Purpose 

Home was the origin for 1,577, or 94.7%, of respondents (Table 3), while 68.4% 
cited work as the purpose of their trip. Other trip purposes cited included school -- 
13.4%, and work-related travel -- 11.3% (see Table 4). Only 0.6% listed airline travel as 
the trip purpose, which is appropriate given the time or price restrictions at each parking 
facility. 



Reasons for Choosing Park & Ride 

The primary reasons for using Park & Ride were "Expensive Parking at 
Destination" (32.0%) and "Faster than Driving All the Way" (31.7%). Other reasons for 
using Park & Ride were "Dislike Expressway Driving" (13.9%), "Faster Than Taking Bus 
to Station" (10.2%), and "Infrequent or No Bus" (6.6%). Both River Road and 
Cumberland users responded similarly (see Table 5). 



TABLE 1 

STARTING MUNICIPALITY 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Municipality 


Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


Des Plaines 


76 


8.3% 


219 


28.7% 


295 


17.6% 


Chicago NW 


207 


22.6% 


19 


2.5% 


226 


13.5% 


Park Ridge 


146 


15.9% 


16 


2.1% 


162 


9.6% 


Mount Prospect 


29 


3.2% 


79 


10.4% 


108 


6.4% 


Norridge 


75 


8.2% 


1 


0.1% 


76 


4.5% 


Chicago Other 


23 


2.5% 


52 


6.8% 


75 


4.5% 


Elk Grove Village 


17 


1.9% 


39 


5.1% 


56 


3.3% 


Hoffman Estates 


37 


4.0% 


18 


2.4% 


55 


3.3% 


Schiller Park 


16 


1.7% 


39 


5.1% 


55 


3.3% 


Arlington Heights 


30 


3.3% 


23 


3.0% 


53 


3.2% 


Schaumburg 


27 


2.9% 


19 


2.5% 


46 


2.7% 


Rosemont 


5 


0.5% 


39 


5.1% 


44 


2.6% 


Palatine 


23 


2.5% 


11 


1 .4% 


34 


2.0% 


Niles 


27 


2.9% 


5 


0.7% 


32 


1.9% 


Franklin Park 


8 


0.9% 


19 


2.5% 


27 


1.6% 


Prospect Heights 


6 


0.7% 


18 


2.4% 


24 


1 .4% 


Wheeling 


10 


1.1% 


14 


1.8% 


24 


1 .4% 


Elgin 


12 


1.3% 


4 


0.5% 


16 


1 .0% 


River Grove 


11 


1.2% 


4 


0.5% 


15 


0.9% 


Rolling Meadows 


6 


0.7% 


8 


1.1% 


14 


0.8% 


Wood Dale 


8 


0.9% 


6 


0.8% 


14 


0.8% 


Buffalo Grove 


9 


1.0% 


3 


0.4% 


12 


0.7% 


Melrose Park 


1 


0.1% 


11 


1 .4% 


12 


0.7% 


Bensenville 


4 


0.4% 


7 


0.9% 


11 


0.7% 


Glenview 


3 


0.3% 


8 


1.1% 


11 


0.7% 


Elmwood Park 


7 


0.8% 


3 


0.4% 


10 


0.6% 


Other 


95 


10.3% 


78 


10.2% 


173 


10.3% 


Total 


918 


100.0% 


762 


100.0% 


1,680 


100.0% 



TABLE 2 

ENDING LOCATION 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Destination 


Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


Chicago CBD 


742 


83.2% 


516 


70.8% 


1,258 


77.6% 


UIC 


59 


6.6% 


32 


4.4% 


91 


5.6% 


O'Hare 


24 


2.7% 


59 


8.1% 


83 


5.1% 


Chicago Other 


36 


4.0% 


28 


3.8% 


64 


3.9% 


Rosemont 


1 


0.1% 


62 


8.5% 


63 


3.9% 


Hoffman Estates 





0.0% 


20 


2.7% 


20 


1.2% 


Chicago NW 


14 


1.6% 


1 


0.1% 


15 


0.9% 


Other 


16 


1.8% 


11 


1.5% 


27 


1.7% 


Total 


892 


100.0% 


729 


100.0% 


1,621 


100.0% 



TABLE 3 







TRIP ORIGIN 






NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 




Origin 


Cumberland 


River Road 


Total 


Home 


865 94.9% 


712 94.6% 


1,577 94.7% 


Work 


34 3.7% 


26 3.4% 


60 3.6% 


Work Related 


12 1.3% 


14 1.9% 


26 1.6% 


Other 


1 0.1% 


1 0.1% 


2 0.1% 


Total 


912 100.0% 


753 100.0% 


1,665 100.0% 



-9- 



FIGURE 4 



MBERLAND PARKE 



HOME ZIP CODES - NOVEMBER 1993 SURVE^ 




RESPONDENTS BY ZIPCODE 

^ 19 to 144 ■ 2 to 9 
A 10 to 18 • 1 



65% Of Respondents 



Miles 



5 10 



N 



Note : 2 Wisconsin Respondents 



10 



FIGURE 5 



MBERLAN 



PARKED 



HOME ZIP CODES NOVEMBER 1993 SURVE 




RESPONDENTS BY ZIPCODE 



65% Of Respondents 



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60305 60302 
' 60301 



60651 



es 



o 



50J >j 



6062 3 




Note : 2 Wisconsin Respondents 



l'.\l 



FIGURE 6 



RIVER ROAD PARKERS 



HOME ZIP CODES - NOVEMBER 1993 SURVE' 



N 



RESPONDENTS BY ZIPCODE 

^ 17 to 133 ■ 2 to 9 
A 10 to 1 6 • 1 



65 % Of Respondents 





Note : 1 Indiana Respondent 



11 



FIGURE 7 



RIVER 



ROA 



PARKERS 



HOME ZIP CODES NOVEMBER 1993 JRVE 



60074 
2_ 




• E . 3 



Note : 1 Indiana Respondent 



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TABLE 4 

TRIP PURPOSE 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Purpose 


Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


Work 


588 


65.9% 


523 


71.4% 


1,111 


68.4% 


School 


132 


14.8% 


85 


11.6% 


217 


13.4% 


Work Related 


106 


11.9% 


78 


10.7% 


184 


11.3% 


Conference 


30 


3.3% 


21 


2.9% 


51 


3.1% 


Court/Jury Duty 


9 


1 .0% 


13 


1.8% 


22 


1 .4% 


Pleasure 


16 


1.8% 


2 


0.3% 


18 


1.1% 


Airline Travel 


6 


0.7% 


4 


0.5% 


10 


0.6% 


Other 


5 


0.6% 


6 


0.8% 


11 


0.7% 


Total 


892 


100.0% 


732 


100.0% 


1,624 


100.0% 



TABLE 5 

REASONS FOR USING PARK & RIDE 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Reasons 

Expensive Parking at 

Destination 
Faster Than Driving 

All the Way 
Dislike Expressway 

Driving 
Faster Than Taking 

Bus to Station 
Infrequent or No Bus 
Need Car In Evening 
Convenient 
Park & Ride Available 
More Trains Than Metra 
Other 

Total 



Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


295 


32.7% 


233 


31.2% 


528 


32.0% 


290 


32.2% 


233 


31.2% 


523 


31.7% 


119 


13.2% 


110 


14.7% 


229 


13.9% 


96 


10.6% 


72 


9.7% 


168 


10.2% 


57 


6.3% 


52 


7.0% 


109 


6.6% 


15 


1.7% 


14 


1.9% 


29 


1.8% 


12 


1.3% 


10 


1.3% 


22 


1.3% 


3 


0.3% 


17 


2.3% 


20 


1.2% 


9 


1.0% 


2 


0.3% 


11 


0.7% 


6 


0.7% 


3 


0.4% 


9 


0.6% 


902 


100.0% 


746 


100.0% 


1,648 


100.0% 



-12- 



Auto Occupancy 

Overall, 89.5% of vehicles contained only one person, 8.6% of vehicles contained 
two people, and 1.9% of vehicles contained three or more people (Table 6). 



Present Parking Patterns 

• Driving Time 

Minutes driving to Park & Ride varied by location (Table 7). 44.2% of 
Cumberland users drove 10 minutes or less and 32.5% drove 11 to 20 
minutes. 22.5% of River Road users drove 10 minutes or less and 46.6% 
drove 11 to 20 minutes. 

• Arrival Time 

Similarly, arrival time at the two Park & Ride sites varied by location (Table 
8). 14.6% of Cumberland users arrived between 6:00 A.M. and 6:59 A.M., 
35.4% arrived between 7:00 and 7:59, and 19.9% arrived between 8:00 
and 8:59. 28.4% of River Road users arrived between 6:00 A.M. and 6:59 
A.M., 30.8% arrived between 7:00 and 7:59, and 9.8% arrived between 
8:00 and 8:59. 

• Parking Frequency 

54.5% of survey respondents used Park & Ride five days during the prior 
week and 9.1% used Park & Ride four days during the prior week (Table 
9). 14.3% did not use Park & Ride during the prior week. 

t Parking Duration 

Ten hours of parking at Park & Ride was most common (Table 10). with 
a 28.7% response rate. 22.4% stated they would park five hours or less, 
9.8% stated 8 hours, 11.3% stated 9 hours, 16.6% stated 11 hours, and 
8.9% stated 12 hours. 



13 



TABLE 6 

NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN CAR 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



People In Car 


Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


One 


811 


88.3% 


693 


91.1% 


1,504 


89.5% 


Two 


89 


9.7% 


55 


7.2% 


144 


8.6% 


Three 


10 


1.1% 


10 


1.3% 


20 


1.2% 


Four 


6 


0.7% 


1 


0.1% 


7 


0.4% 


Five 


1 


1.1% 





0.0% 


1 


0.1% 


Six or More 


1 


1.1% 


2 


0.3% 


3 


0.2% 


Total 


918 


100.0% 


761 
TABLE 7 


100.0% 


1,679 


100.0% 



MINUTES DRIVING TO PARK & RIDE 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Minutes Driving 


Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


1 to 5 


161 


17.5% 


37 


4.8% 


198 


11.8% 


6 to 10 


245 


26.7% 


135 


17.7% 


380 


22.6% 


1 1 to 1 5 


168 


18.3% 


170 


22.2% 


338 


20.1% 


1 6 to 20 


130 


14.2% 


186 


24.4% 


316 


18.8% 


21 to 25 


62 


6.8% 


75 


9.8% 


137 


8.1% 


26 to 30 


76 


8.3% 


82 


10.7% 


158 


9.4% 


31 to 35 


24 


2.6% 


27 


3.5% 


51 


3.0% 


36 to 40 


21 


2.3% 


22 


2.9% 


43 


2.6% 


41 to 50 


19 


2.1% 


18 


2.4% 


37 


2.2% 


51 to 60 


3 


0.3% 


5 


0.7% 


8 


0.5% 


More Than 60 


8 


0.9% 


7 


0.9% 


15 


0.9% 


Total 


917 


100.0% 


764 100.0% 


1,681 


100.0% 



-14- 



TABLE 8 

TIME OF ARRIVAL AT PARK & RIDE 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Arrival Time 



0000 to 
0400 to 
0500 to 
0530 to 
0600 to 
0630 to 
0700 to 
0730 to 
0800 to 
0830 to 
0900 to 
0930 to 
1000 to 
1100 to 
1 200 to 
1300 to 
1400 to 
1 500 to 
1 800 to 

Total 



0359 
0459 
0529 
0559 
0629 
0659 
0729 
0759 
0829 
0859 
0929 
0959 
1059 
1159 
1259 
1359 
1459 
1759 
2359 



Cumberland 


River Road 


23 


2.5% 


16 


2.1% 


7 


0.8% 


30 


4.0% 


15 


1.7% 


36 


4.7% 


41 


4.5% 


68 


9.0% 


59 


6.5% 


84 


11.1% 


73 


8.1% 


131 


17.3% 


176 


19.4% 


140 


18.5% 


145 


16.0% 


93 


12.3% 


120 


13.3% 


61 


8.0% 


60 


6.6% 


14 


1.8% 


45 


5.0% 


3 


0.4% 


19 


2.1% 


6 


0.8% 


26 


2.9% 


10 


1.3% 


24 


2.7% 


21 


2.8% 


2 


0.2% 


2 


0.3% 


23 


2.5% 


9 


1.2% 


14 


1.5% 


10 


1.3% 


28 


3.1% 


20 


2.6% 


5 


0.6% 


4 


0.5% 


905 


100.0% 


758 
TABLE 9 


100.0% 



Total 



39 


2.3% 


37 


2.2% 


51 


3.1% 


109 


6.6% 


143 


8.6% 


204 


12.3% 


316 


19.0% 


238 


14.3% 


181 


10.9% 


74 


4.5% 


48 


2.9% 


25 


1.5% 


36 


2.2% 


45 


2.7% 


4 


0.2% 


32 


1.9% 


24 


1 .4% 


48 


2.9% 


9 


0.5% 


1,663 


100.0% 



NUMBER OF DAYS USING PARK & RIDE LAST WEEK 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Number of Days 

Zero 

One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Seven 

Total 



Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


136 14.9% 


102 


13.5% 


238 


14.3% 


56 6.1% 


35 


4.6% 


91 


5.5% 


63 6.9% 


31 


4.1% 


94 


5.6% 


73 8.0% 


39 


5.2% 


112 


6.7% 


86 9.4% 


66 


8.7% 


152 


9.1% 


462 50.5% 


447 


59.2% 


909 


54.5% 


30 3.3% 


30 


4.0% 


60 


3.6% 


8 0.9% 


5 


0.7% 


13 


0.8% 


914 100.0% 


755 


100.0% 


1,680 


100.0% 



-15- 



TABLE 10 

NUMBER OF HOURS PARKED TODAY 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Hours Parked 


Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


1 Hour 


3 


0.3% 


7 


0.9% 


10 


0.6% 


2 Hours 


9 


1.0% 


12 


1.6% 


21 


1.3% 


3 Hours 


37 


4.1% 


19 


2.5% 


56 


3.4% 


4 Hours 


47 


5.2% 


28 


3.7% 


75 


4.5% 


5 Hours 


47 


5.2% 


29 


3.9% 


76 


4.6% 


6 Hours 


43 


4.7% 


30 


4.0% 


73 


4.4% 


7 Hours 


25 


2.7% 


21 


2.8% 


46 


2.8% 


8 Hours 


82 


9.0% 


81 


10.8% 


163 


9.8% 


9 Hours 


107 


11.8% 


81 


10.8% 


188 


11.3% 


10 Hours 


280 


30.7% 


197 


26.2% 


477 


28.7% 


1 1 Hours 


148 


16.2% 


128 


17.0% 


276 


16.6% 


1 2 Hours 


59 


6.5% 


89 


11.8% 


148 


8.9% 


13 or More Hours 


24 


2.6% 


30 


4.0% 


54 


3.2% 


Total 


911 


100.0% 


752 


100.0% 


1,663 


100.0% 



TABLE 1 1 

HOW LONG PARKING AT PARK & RIDE 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



How Long Parking 

Less Than 3 Months 
3 Months to 6 Months 
6 Months to 1 Year 
1 Year to 2 Years 
More than 2 years 

Total 



Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


286 31.7% 


236 31.5% 


522 


31.6% 


74 8.2% 


47 6.3% 


121 


7.3% 


115 12.8% 


37 4.9% 


152 


9.2% 


151 16.8% 


108 14.4% 


259 


15.7% 


275 30.5% 


322 42.9% 


597 


36.2% 


901 100.0% 


750 100.0% 


1,651 


100.0% 



-16- 



• Parking Level Choice 

Cumberland Park & Ride users parked on the second level most often 
(47.1%) followed by the third level (31.6%), the first level (14.3%), and the 
fourth level (7.0%). The first level has HOV and handicapped parking 
restrictions and the fourth level is open to the weather. 

• Parking Facility Choice 

Nearly a quarter (23.0%) of Cumberland users had parked at River Road. 
At River Road Park & Ride, 67.2% of users always find a parking spot. Of 
those who do not always find a spot, 51% park at Cumberland, 30.9% 
drive all the way, and 12.8% park nearby. Thus, 16.7% of River Road 
parkers have used the Cumberland facility, indicating an overlap in market 
areas served. 



Prior Travel and Parking History 

• Length of Park-Ride Usage 

31.6% of Park & Ride users stated that they had been using Park & Ride 
less than three months (Table 11). This figure was almost identical for 
Cumberland and River Road. At Cumberland, 21% stated they had been 
using Park & Ride for three months to one year, 16.8% for one to two 
years, and 30.5% for more than two years. At River Road, 1 1 .2% stated 
they had been using Park & Ride for three months to one year, 14.4% for 
one to two years, and 42.9% for more than two years. 

• Prior Travel Mode (New Users) 

Of that share of Park & Ride users who were new users (less than three 
months), 37.1% just started making the trip, 27.0% previously drove all the 
way, and 33.8% used other transit combinations (see Table 12). A high 
rate of diversion from auto is achieved. Former auto users, coupled with 
a large percentage of individuals that just started making the trip, were in 
effect all diverted from auto use, thus reducing expressway congestion. 
Overall, 74.7% of new park & ride users were new to CTA. 



17 



TABLE 12 

HOW WAS TRIP MADE BEFORE USING PARK & RIDE: NEW USERS 

NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Before Park & Ride 


Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


Just Started Making 


92 


33.3% 


87 


42.2% 


179 


37.1% 


This Trip 














Drove All the Way 


76 


27.5% 


54 


26.2% 


130 


27.0% 


Parked at a Different 


35 


12.7% 


17 


8.3% 


52 


10.8% 


CTA Station 














Used a Bus & Train 


29 


10.5% 


19 


9.2% 


48 


9.9% 


All the Way 














Used Metra 


24 


8.7% 


17 


8.3% 


41 


8.5% 


Got a Ride to the 


16 


5.8% 


6 


2.9% 


22 


4.6% 


Station 














Got a Ride All 


4 


1.5% 


6 


2.9% 


10 


2.1% 


the Way 














Total 


276 


100.0% 


206 


100.0% 


482 


100.0% 



NOTE: FOR THOSE USING PARK & RIDE LESS THAN THREE MONTHS 



-18- 



• Alternate Travel Modes (Other Users) 

Experienced users, using Park & Ride more than three months, used a 
variety of alternatives in the last six months (Table 13). Experienced 
Cumberland users reported that 55.8% previously drove all the way, 10.1% 
got a ride all the way, 1 8.0% used a bus and train all the way, 21 .0% used 
Metra, 16.7% got a ride to the station, 12.0% parked at a different CTA 
station, and 13.3% never used an alternative. 

Experienced River Road users reported that 45.5% drove all the way, 9.5% 
got a ride all the way, 1 3.2% used a bus and train all the way, 1 9.6% used 
Metra, 8.9% got a ride to the station, 12.6% parked at a different CTA 
station, and 20.4% never used an alternative. (Note: respondents at both 
stations could check more than one answer; many did so.) 

• Daily Parking Cost at Final Destination 

More than half of all respondents (55.6%) avoided daily parking costs at 
their destination of $5.00 to $9.99, while more than a quarter (25.7%) 
avoided $10.00 to $14.99 in destination parking costs (see Table 14). 

• Prior CTA Usage 

27.2% of Park & Ride users reported using CTA for less than six months, 
9.4% for six months to one year, 15.2% from one to two years, and 48.2% 
for more than two years (see Table 15). 

• Alternate Travel Mode (No Auto Available) 

When no vehicle is available to Park & Ride users, 34.4% do not use CTA 
(Table 16). Either "Used Metra" (62.1%) or "Trip Not Made" (37.9%) 
options were indicated. Of the 75.6% of Park & Ride users who would use 
CTA when no vehicle was available, most were evenly split between "Take 
Bus to Station" (40.8%) and "Get Ride to Station" (40.2%). Cumberland 
users were more likely to list "take a bus" while River Road users were 
more likely to list "get a ride". Other significant responses: "Bus to Other 
Station" (9.9%), and "Walk to Station" (7.2%). 

Park & Ride users who use Metra when no vehicle is available or as an 
alternate to Park & Ride use a variety of stations. 



19 



How Else Has 
Trip Been Made 

Drove All the Way 

Got a Ride All 

the Way 
Used a Bus & Train 

All the Way 
Used Metra 

Got a Ride to the 

Station 
Parked at a Different 

CTA Station 
Never Used An 

Alternative 



TABLE 13 

ALTERNATE TRAVEL MODE FOR THIS TRIP 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Cumberland 

343 55.8% 

62 10.1% 

111 18.0% 

129 21.0% 

103 16.7% 

74 12.0% 

82 13.3% 



River Road 

234 45.5% 

49 9.5% 

68 13.2% 

101 19.6% 

46 8.9% 

65 12.6% 

105 20.4% 



Total 

577 51.1% 

111 9.8% 

179 15.9% 

230 20.4% 

149 13.2% 

139 12.3% 

187 16.6% 



NOTE: FOR THOSE USING PARK & RIDE MORE THAN THREE MONTHS 
RESPONDENTS COULD CHECK MORE THAN ONE ANSWER 



TABLE 14 

DAILY PARKING COST AT FINAL DESTINATION 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Parking Cost 

$0.00 to $4.99 
$5.00 to $9.99 
$10.00 to $14.99 
$15.00 or More 

Total 



Cumberland 

78 9.4% 

457 55.4% 

235 28.5% 

55 6.7% 

825 100.0% 



River Road 

101 16.0% 

354 55.9% 

140 22.1% 

38 6.0% 

633 100.0% 



Total 

179 12.3% 

811 55.6% 

375 25.7% 

93 6.4% 

1,458 100.0% 



-20- 



TABLE 15 

HOW LONG USING CTA 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



How Long Using CTA 

Less Than 6 Months 
6 Months to 1 Year 
1 Year to 2 Years 
More than 2 years 



Cumberland 

239 26.4% 

108 11.9% 

147 16.3% 

410 45.4% 



River Road 

207 28.2% 

45 6.1% 

102 13.9% 

380 51.8% 



Total 

446 27.2% 

153 9.4% 

249 15.2% 

790 48.2% 



Total 



904 100.0% 



734 100.0% 



1,638 100.0% 



TABLE 16 

HOW WOULD TRIP BE MADE IF NO VEHICLE AVAILABLE 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



When No Vehicle 






Is Available 


Cumberland 


Take Bus to Station 


251 


28.0% 


Get Ride to Station 


196 


21.9% 


Take Metra 


200 


22.3% 


Not Make Trip 


110 


12.3% 


Bus to Other Station 


68 


7.6% 


Walk to Station 


60 


6.7% 


Taxi to Station 


5 


0.6% 


Other 


5 


0.6% 


Total 


895 


100.0% 



River Road 


188 


25.2% 


237 


31.8% 


151 


20.3% 


104 


13.9% 


39 


5.2% 


17 


2.3% 


7 


0.9% 


3 


0.4% 


746 


100.0% 



Total 



439 


26.8% 


433 


26.4% 


351 


21.4% 


214 


13.0% 


107 


6.5% 


77 


4.7% 


12 


0.7% 


8 


0.5% 



1,641 100.0% 



-21- 



Satisfaction with Rail Service 

Rail service was rated very satisfactory by 59% of all Park & Ride users, 
somewhat satisfactory by 31%, neutral by 6%, and somewhat or very unsatisfactory by 
4%. 

These ratings are much more favorable than those expressed in system-wide 
traveler attitude telephone surveys conducted in 1988, 1990, and 1993. 1 These surveys 
are representative of general rider and non-rider opinions. (All surveys gave respondents 
five rating choices.) 

O'Hare Line Park & Ride users rated rail service very highly, with 90% responding 
in the top two rating categories. By contrast, responses in the top two rating categories 
by the general rider/non-rider population were 52% in 1988, 61% in 1990, and 58% in 
1993. (These ratings apply to public transit service in general, covering both rail and 
bus.) Only 1% of O'Hare Line Park & Ride users gave rail service the worst rating. In 
the general population, the worst rating were given by 12% in 1988, 11% in 1990, and 
12% in 1993. 

High ratings of rail service by O'Hare Line Park & Ride users is probably due in 
part to their travel patterns. Most Park & Ride users take rapid transit to and from the 
CBD during peak periods. Service at that time is most frequent. In addition, seats are 
often available in the morning, since these two stops are near the beginning of the line. 

Most important, other basic aspects of rapid transit service quality— such as 
schedule reliability and on-time performance— are clearly regarded highly by Blue Line 
park & riders. 



Awareness of Park & Ride Options 

Park & riders first learned about the facility they used mainly by seeing it, or 
seeing a sign or ad near it (Tables 17 and 18). Similar information from the March 1993 
survey led to the development of primarily visual media at the Cumberland Garage for the 
September-October, 1993 promotional campaign. 

For Cumberland users, 72.2% first learned of the garage visually (drove by, rode 



1 Results from all three surveys are contained in 1993 Traveler Attitudes Survey , 
Technical Report SP93-07, August 1993. 

22 



TABLE 17 



HOW DID YOU FIRST LEARN ABOUT PARK & RIDE 



First Learn 


Cumberland 


River Road 


Drove By 


410 


45.0% 


273 


37.0% 


From a Friend/Relative 


216 


23.7% 


271 


36.8% 


Rode By on Train 


171 


18.8% 


80 


10.9% 


CTA Map 


19 


2.1% 


50 


6.8% 


CTA Sign 


31 


3.4% 


28 


3.8% 


Green Expressway Sign 


12 


1.3% 


6 


0.8% 


Cumberland Promotion 






29 


3.9% 


Ad Balloon 


35 


3.8% 






Tollbooth Coupon 


8 


0.9% 






Tribune Coupon 


5 


0.5% 






Sun-Times Coupon 


3 


0.3% 






WMAQ Radio Ads 


2 


0.2% 






Total 


912 


100.0% 


737 


100.0% 



TABLE 18 



HOW DID YOU FIRST LEARN ABOUT PARK & RIDE: SUMMARY 



First Learn 


Cumberland 


River Road 


Visual, En Route 


659 72.2% 


387 52.5% 


Word of Mouth 


216 23.7% 


271 36.8% 


CTA Map 


19 2.1% 


50 6.8% 


Coupons 


16 1.8% 




Other 


2 0.2% 


29 3.9% 


Total 


912 100.0% 


737 100.0% 



-23- 



by on train, CTA sign, green expressway sign, ad balloon). About a quarter (23.7%) 
heard by word-of-mouth, only 2.1% saw it on the CTA map, and about 2% got a coupon 
or heard the radio ad. 

At River Road, visual observation was still the dominant way to first learn about 
park & ride (56.4%, including those who saw the Cumberland promotion). But word-of- 
mouth (36.8%) and the CTA map (6.8%) were more significant for these users. 

By also looking at trip purpose, we learned of another potentially effective method 
to advertise— at the destination end of student trips. Park & riders travelling to school 
were more likely to have first heard by word-of-mouth (44.2% vs. 28.0% for workers), and 
not as likely to have learned of it visually (23.7% vs. 36.8% for workers). Flyers or 
posters at the university might help reach this group. 

New park & riders—those who began using Park & Ride since the ad campaign 
(less than three months at the time of survey)— were four times more likely than existing 
users to indicate the promotion as their primary source of information, at Cumberland 
(9.9% vs 2.4%, for the five promotional elements listed in Table 17). New users at 
Cumberland were also more likely to cite the green expressway sign for the lot (2.8% vs 
0.6%). 1 in 8 new Cumberland users plainly identified promotion/signing as how they first 
learned about Park & Ride. 



Demographic Characteristics 

Demographics of the survey respondents are presented in Table 19 to Table 23. 
Overall, 82.8% of Park & Ride users are white, 6.6% are Asian-American, 4.7% African- 
American, and 4.3% Hispanic. The user age breakdown is 39.1% aged 35 to 50, 27.4% 
aged 25 to 34, 16.5% aged 51 to 64, 15.3% aged 16 to 24. The Park & Ride user 
household size breakdown is one - 12.7%, two - 27.7%, and three or more 59.6%; 
average household size is 3.04 persons. 

99.8% of Park & Ride users reported one or more vehicles available in their 
household. The breakdown was 1 vehicle -- 1 1 .3%, 2 vehicles - 36.6%, 3 vehicles -- 
33.7%, and 4 or more vehicles -- 18.2%. The annual household income breakdown of 
Park & Ride users was: Less Than $20,001 -- 7.3%, $20,001 to $40,000 - 25.6%, 
$40,001 to $60,000 -- 29.9%, $60,001 to $80,000 -- 18.9%, and More Than $80,000 -- 
18.4%. 



24 



TABLE 19 

AGE OF RESPONDENTS 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Age 

1 6 to 24 
25 to 34 
35 to 50 
51 to 64 
65 or Over 

Total 



Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


157 17.2% 


100 13.1% 


257 


15.3% 


268 29.4% 


191 25.0% 


459 


27.4% 


334 36.6% 


321 42.1% 


655 


39.1% 


138 15.1% 


138 18.1% 


276 


16.5% 


15 1.7% 


13 1.7% 


28 


1.7% 


912 100.0% 


763 100.0% 
TABLE 20 


1,675 


100.0% 



RACE OF RESPONENTS 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Race 


Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


Hispanic 


35 


3.8% 


37 


4.9% 


72 


4.3% 


African American 


20 


2.2% 


58 


7.7% 


78 


4.7% 


European American 


806 


88.7% 


570 


75.7% 


1,376 


82.8% 


Asian American 


39 


4.3% 


70 


9.3% 


109 


6.6% 


American Indian 


3 


0.3% 


5 


0.7% 


8 


0.5% 


Other 


6 


0.7% 


13 


1.7% 


19 


1.1% 


Total 


909 


100.0% 


753 
TABLE 21 


100.0% 


1,662 


100.0% 






HOUSEHOLD SIZE 










NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 






Household Size 


Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


1 Person 


119 


13.1% 


93 


12.2% 


212 


12.7% 


2 People 


261 


28.8% 


201 


26.4% 


462 


27.7% 


3 People 


203 


22.4% 


162 


21.3% 


365 


21.9% 


4 People 


195 


21.5% 


183 


24.1% 


378 


22.7% 


5 People 


85 


9.4% 


86 


11.3% 


171 


10.3% 


6 or More People 


43 


4.8% 


36 


4.7% 


79 


4.7% 


Total 


906 


100.0% 


761 


100.0% 


1,667 


100.0% 



"25- 



TABLE 22 

VEHICLES AVAILABLE IN HOUSEHOLD 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Number of Vehicles 


Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


Vehicles 


1 0.1% 


2 0.3% 


3 


0.2% 


1 Vehicles 


99 10.8% 


90 11.9% 


189 


11.3% 


2 Vehicles 


322 35.2% 


289 38.3% 


611 


36.6% 


3 Vehicles 


315 34.5% 


248 32.8% 


563 


33.7% 


4 or More Vehicles 


177 19.4% 


126 16.7% 


303 


18.2% 


Total 


914 100.0% 


755 100.0% 


1,669 


100.0% 



TABLE 23 

HOUSEHOLD INCOME 
NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Household Income 


Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


Under $10,000 


11 


1.3% 


21 


3.0% 


32 


2.1% 


$10,001 to $20,000 


38 


4.5% 


42 


6.0% 


80 


5.2% 


$20,001 to $30,000 


72 


8.6% 


81 


11.5% 


153 


9.9% 


$30,001 to $40,000 


110 


13.1% 


133 


18.8% 


243 


15.7% 


$40,001 to $50,000 


137 


16.3% 


109 


15.4% 


246 


15.9% 


$50,001 to $60,000 


119 


14.2% 


98 


13.9% 


217 


14.0% 


$60,001 to $70,000 


107 


12.7% 


75 


10.6% 


182 


11.8% 


$70,001 to $80,000 


64 


7.6% 


46 


6.5% 


110 


7.1% 


Over $80,000 


183 


21.8% 


101 


14.3% 


284 


18.4% 


Total 


805 


100.0% 


650 


100.0% 


1,455 


100.0% 



-26- 



Cumberland and River Road Park & Ride user demographics are quite different 
from typical CTA demographics. 2 Cumberland & River Road Park & Ride users are 
different from typical CTA riders because: 

Household income is higher - 67% of Park & Ride users earn more than $40,000 
annually versus 22% for all CTA riders. 

Fewer are African-American - 5% of Park & Ride users are African-American 
versus 38% for all CTA riders. 

More are Asian-American - 7% of Park & Ride users are Asian-American versus 
2% for all CTA riders. 

More are working-age - 83% of Park & Ride users are aged 25 to 64 versus 61 % 
of all CTA riders. 

Everyone has a vehicle - 99.8% of Park & Ride users have at least one vehicle 
in their household versus 68% of all CTA riders. 

• Fewer are women - 41% of Park & Ride users are female versus 67% of all CTA 
riders. 

RESPONSE TO CARPOOL PARKING PREFERENCE 



Awareness of Cumberland Preferential Parking 

Most, 82.3%, of Cumberland Park & Ride users were aware of preferential carpool 
parking available on the first level of the garage. However, 17.7% were not aware of the 
preferential carpool parking area, which is surprising, since all drove directly under a large 
sign describing it. When asked if they would use preferred parking spaces for carpools. 
River Road user response was: Always ~ 9.0%, Frequently -- 7.3%, Seldom - 22.8%, 
and Never - 60.9%. 



2 Typical CTA demographics presented in Who Rides CTA? . Technical Memo 
PR/MAR 92-3-03, April 1992. 

27 



Price Sensitivity to Preferential Parking 

Park & Ride users were asked if they would carpool if given a discount. This 
question was asked for four discount levels. At a 250 discount level, only 8.0% stated 
they Definitely Will carpool. This rate is lower than the share now carpooling. This 
percentage willing to carpool did not change until the 750 discount level, where 12.5% 
stated they Definitely Will carpool. At the $1.00 discount level, 24.9% stated they 
Definitely Will carpool. The 750 to $1.00 discount area is clearly a threshold point that 
could encourage carpools. 

Survey results for the four pricing levels are detailed in Tables 24-27. 

Response differences from the 250 discount level to the $1 .00 discount level were 
an increase of 16.9% for Definitely Will, and increase of 3.2% for Probably Will, a 
decrease of 0.1% for Maybe Will, a decrease 9.5% for Probably Will NOT, and a 
decrease of 10.5% for Definitely Will NOT. 

Of new users, those using Park & Ride less than three months, 34.1 % stated they 
Definitely Will carpool at the $1 .00 discount level. 

On the other side of the scale, a large core of users will never carpool. Even at 
the highest discount level, 43.5% of users Definitely Will NOT carpool. At the 250 
discount level, 54.0% Definitely Will NOT carpool. Clearly, about 50% of Park & Ride 
users will never carpool, based on price incentives alone. 



Key Characteristics of Potential Carpoolers 

Some important differences arise between the Park & Ride users who stated they 
Definitely Will carpool if a $1.00 discount is given, and all other users. The group that 
Definitely Will carpool at the $1.00 discount level will be referred to as HOV Yes. The 
remaining users will be referred to as HOV No. Answers to most survey questions 
break down the same way for both HOV Yes and HOV No. Significant differences exist, 
however, between these two groups in the following areas: 

♦ How Long Using Park & Ride- 
Less Than 3 Months, HOV Yes -- 40.9%, 

HOV No -- 26.5% 



More Than 2 Years, HOV Yes -- 26.1%, 

HOV No -- 40.6%. 



28 



TABLE 24 

HOW LIKELY TO CARPOOL: 

250 DISCOUNT FOR CARPOOLERS 

NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Likely to Carpool 


Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


Definitely Will 


68 8.4% 


49 7.5% 


117 


8.0% 


Probably Will 


35 4.4% 


21 3.2% 


56 


3.9% 


Maybe Will 


84 10.4% 


46 7.1% 


130 


8.9% 


Probably Will NOT 


218 27.1% 


148 22.8% 


366 


25.2% 


Definitely Will NOT 


400 49.7% 


386 59.4% 


786 


54.0% 


Total 


805 100.0% 


650 100.0% 


1,455 


100.0% 



TABLE 25 

HOW LIKELY TO CARPOOL: 

50C DISCOUNT FOR CARPOOLERS 

NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Likely to Carpool 


Cur 


nberland 


River Road 




Total 


Definitely Will 


62 


8.2% 


44 7.5% 


106 


7.9% 


Probably Will 


53 


7.0% 


26 4.4% 


79 


5.9% 


Maybe Will 


100 


13.2% 


66 11.2% 


166 


12.3% 


Probably Will NOT 


190 


25.1% 


131 22.3% 


321 


23.8% 


Definitely Will NOT 


353 


46.5% 


321 54.6% 


674 


50.1% 


Total 


758 


100.0% 


588 100.0% 


1,346 


100.0% 



-29- 



TABLE 26 

HOW LIKELY TO CARPOOL: 

750 DISCOUNT FOR CARPOOLERS 

NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Likely to Carpool 


Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


Definitely Will 


104 13.5% 


65 11.1% 


169 


12.5% 


Probably Will 


94 12.2% 


59 10.1% 


153 


11.3% 


Maybe Will 


89 11.6% 


66 11.3% 


155 


11.5% 


Probably Will NOT 


152 19.7% 


107 18.3% 


259 


19.1% 


Definitely Will NOT 


331 43.0% 


287 49.2% 


618 


45.6% 


Total 


770 100.0% 


584 100.0% 


1,354 


100.0% 



TABLE 27 

HOW LIKELY TO CARPOOL: 

$1.00 DISCOUNT FOR CARPOOLERS 

NOVEMBER 1993 SURVEY 



Likely to Carpool 


Cumberland 


River Road 




Total 


Definitely Will 


210 26.7% 


141 22.6% 


351 


24.9% 


Probably Will 


54 6.8% 


47 7.5% 


101 


7.1% 


Maybe Will 


62 7.9% 


62 9.9% 


124 


8.8% 


Probably Will NOT 


137 17.4% 


84 13.4% 


221 


15.7% 


Definitely Will NOT 


324 41.2% 


291 56.6% 


615 


43.5% 


Total 


787 100.0% 


625 100.0% 


1,412 


100.0% 



-3 0- 






• Before Using Park & Ride- 
Drove All The Way, HOV Yes -- 31 .5%, 

HOV No -- 21.7% 

Got A Ride All the 

Way, HOV Yes -- 4.0%, 

HOV No -- 1.1% 

Park at Other CTA 

Station, HOV Yes -- 6.5%, 



HOV No -- 12.9% 



o 



Just Started Making 

Trip, HOV Yes -- 36.3%, 



HOV No -- 41 .8% 



o. 



• How Long Using CTA— 

Less Than 6 Months, HOV Yes -- 33.8%, 

HOV No -- 24.2% 

More Than 2 Years, HOV Yes -- 40.5%, 

HOV No --51.9%. 

• First Learned About Park & Ride— 

From a Friend, HOV Yes -- 37.2%, 

HOV No --26.1% 

Drove By, HOV Yes -- 29.1%, 

HOV No -- 36.8%. 

• Age Group 

16 to 24, HOV Yes --29.1%, 

HOV No -- 12.7% 

35 to 50, HOV Yes -- 29.4%, 

HOV No -- 42.9%. 



31 



• Household Size 

1 Person, HOV Yes -- 6.6%, 

HOV No-- 14.7% 

2 People, HOV Yes ~ 22.9%, 

HOV No -- 29.0% 

3 or More People, HOV Yes ~ 70.2%, 

HOV No -- 56.2%. 

Interestingly, 21 .0% of HOV Yes users were NOT aware of the preferential HOV parking 
at Cumberland. 37.9% of HOV Yes users stated they would NEVER use preferential 
HOV parking at River Road. 



Key Characteristics of Present Carpoolers 

At both facilities, 172 or 10.4% of Park & Ride users arrived with more than one 
person in their vehicle. Survey responses from HOVs (High Occupancy Vehicles) were 
similar to responses from SOVs (Single Occupancy Vehicles) in general. However, 
people in carpools (HOVs) were more likely to park 8 hours or less (perhaps reflecting 
the student market), were newer to park & ride, and were more likely to have converted 
from previously "drove all the way". 

• Parked for Eight Hours or Less, 

HOVs -- 43.9%, 
SOVs -- 29.9%. 

• Using Park & Ride Less Than Three Months, 

HOVs -- 37.8%, 
SOVs -- 30.9%; 

• Just Started Making Trip, 

HOVs -- 22.2%, 
SOVs - 39.6%. 

At Cumberland, 31.8% of HOV drivers did NOT know about preferred HOV parking, 
indicating a need for better information at the garage. At River Road, 19.4% of HOV 
drivers stated they would NEVER use preferred HOV parking. 



32 



Even with a $1.00 carpool discount, 16.0% of HOV drivers at both facilities stated 
they Definitely Will NOT carpool. This suggests that their multi-occupancy vehicle status 
on the day of the survey was not a regular travel pattern, but only an occasional one. 
Regularity of carpooling (i.e., it happens every day) was apparently assumed by these 
respondents in their answer. 

CONCLUSIONS: PARK & RIDE USAGE INCREASES 



Contrasts Between March and November 1993 Surveys 

On March 4, 1993 a survey of Park & Ride users at Cumberland and River Road 
was conducted. 3 The response to the March 1993 survey and the November 1993 were 
surprisingly similar. Response rates decreased slightly from the March survey. 

A significant change occurred between March and November in response to the 
question 'How long have you been using Park & Ride?'. In March, 22.6% stated they had 
been using Park & Ride less than six months. In November, 38.9% reported using Park 
& Ride less than six months. This is an increase of 16.3 percentage points. Similarly, 
the March survey reported that 18.5% were riding CTA for less than six months. In 
November, this percentage increased to 27.2%, an increase of 8.7 percentage points. 

Clearly, by November the percentage of new Park & Ride users and new CTA 
users had grown since March. 

There was some variation between March and November in the reasons cited for 
using Park & Ride. "Expensive Parking at Destination" remained the top choice, with 
response rates of 32.6% in March and 32.0% in November. Response rates for "Faster 
Than Driving" increased from 28.0% in March to 31.7% in November. (Cumberland 
responses remained the same, for this factor, but River Road increased in November to 
31 .2%, from 25.3% in March.) "Dislike Expressway Driving" was cited by 1 1 .6% in March 
and 13.9% in November. 

A slightly higher percentage of November surveys, 13.4% versus 12.0%, reported 
trip purpose as school. Related to this difference, a higher percentage of November 
respondents were aged 16 to 24, 15.3% versus 13.8%. However, household income 
breakdowns did not change. This would indicate that these additional students are not 
living alone, or are part-time students holding down full-time jobs. 



3 O'Hare Line Park & Ride Survey s, Technical Report SP93-06. July 1993 

33 



Effectiveness of Fall 1993 Cumberland Promotions 

The Cumberland Park & Ride promotion occurred in September and October 1993. 
While Cumberland Park & Ride usage was up in 1993 (compared to 1992) by 13.2% in 
September and 15.4% in October, other factors besides the promotion may have 
contributed to these increases. In both 1992 and 1993, extensive reconstruction on the 
Kennedy Expressway was in progress during these two months. Further, the enlarged 
parking facility was only open four months by September 1992. 

• Net Usage Increase Attributable to Marketing 

By December of each year, however, these factors would have been 
eliminated, and any increase in usage is directly attributable to the promotion. 
As illustrated in Figure 3 (p. 6), December 1993 usage was 7.8% higher than 
1992 usage, while overall station traffic fell 0.9%. Also, the drop from 
November to December was 12.0% in 1992 and only 10.7% in 1993. Clearly, 
more Cumberland Park & Ride users are being retained in 1993 than 1992. 



As Table 17 (p. 23) shows, 5.8% of Cumberland users and 3.9% of River 
Road users stated that they first learned about the Park & Ride facilities 
through some feature of the Cumberland promotion. Two-thirds of these 
Cumberland users (3.8% overall) specifically cited the giant ad balloon on top 
of the Cumberland garage. Another 30.2% of these users (1 .8% overall) 
cited coupons. Only two respondents cited the radio ads (only 10 were run). 
In addition, CTA signs, which included existing and promotional signs, were 
cited overall by 3.4% of users. 

Overall, 72.2% of Cumberland users and 52.5% of River Road users stated 
that they first learned about Park & Ride through visual items. CTA signs, 
expressway signs, and the ad balloon were the items specifically mentioned. 
Many indicated "drove by", which can include any or all of these specific 
items, and simply seeing the facility itself. 

As these survey results show, visual promotions are the most effective means 
to inform potential users that Park & Ride facilities are available. Of specific 
promotional material, the ad balloon was cited most often. 



34 



• Changes In User Profiles 

The most significant change in the Cumberland Park & Ride user profile, from 
the "before" survey (March 1993) to the "after" survey (November 1993). is 
the number of new users. In the March 1993 survey 26.2% of users stated 
they had been using Park & Ride for less than six months. By the November 
1993 survey, this percentage had increased to 39.9%, an increase of 13.7 
percentage points. Two-fifths (39.9%) of all Cumberland Park & Ride users 
became new users during the ten months between March and November 
1993. Further, 31.7% of all riders stated they had been using Park & Ride 
less than three months. That is, they began using Park & Ride in September 
or October. 

While the Kennedy Expressway reconstruction may have encouraged many 
to try Park & Ride from March through October, the November survey is a 
snapshot of users after reconstruction was completed for the year. Clearly, 
the Cumberland Promotion is a contributing factor to the increase in and 
retention of new Park & Ride users. 

As Table 12 illustrates, of those using Cumberland Park & Ride for less than 
three months, 33.3% just started making that trip and 27.5% formerly drove 
all the way. It would appear that the Cumberland promotion is most effective 
at attracting individuals with new travel patterns, and who are dissatisfied with 
driving. 



*********** 

The November 1993 survey clearly shows that the September and October 1993 
Cumberland Promotion reached new Park & Ride users. These new users are more 
willing to carpool, and there was a significant diversion of vehicles from the expressway 
and CBD. Further, almost a quarter of all Park & Ride users stated a willingness to 
carpool to transit if given a $1.00 discount on parking. 

Because of such positive response, an experimental HOV discount program is 
warranted. To facilitate administration and control, $1.00 discount coupons should be 
distributed to all entering HOV vehicle at Cumberland, between 5:00 A.M. and 10:00 A.M. 
A uniformed guard could distribute coupons and direct HOV vehicles to the first parking 
level. Drivers would redeem coupons when exiting. This program could run as an 
experiment for two months. 

JFL-1 

6/1/94 

35 



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